What is a conjunction?
A conjunction is a word that joins words or groups of words.
I play cricket and football.
I play tennis but John does not play.
Types of Conjunctions
There are two kinds of conjunctions
- It joins words, phrases, and clauses that are of equal importance in a sentence.
- There are seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, or, so, yet, for, nor.
- The mnemonic acronym FANBOYS can be used to remember the coordinators (For And Nor But Or Yet So)
Each coordinating conjunction expresses a specific meaning:
- For - Used to introduce the reason for something mentioned in the previous statement.
I went to the grocery store, for I was out of sugar.
I believed her, for surely she would not lie to me.
- And - Used to connect words or parts of sentences.
“and” is between two nouns
I like tea and coffee.
Ram and I left early.
Do it slowly and carefully?
Can you read and write in English?
- Nor – Nor is used when the alternative is negative
She seemed neither surprised nor worried.
He wasn’t there on Monday. Nor on Tuesday, for that matter.
He did not stop running, nor did he look back over his shoulder
The elderly lady did not see the car nor did she hear the horn.
- But – used to introduce a word or phrase that contrasts with what was said before
His mother won’t be there, but his father might.
I asked everybody but only two people came
By the end of the day we were tired but happy
- Or – Used to introduce another possibility
Is your sister older or younger than you?
Are you coming or not?
Is it a boy or a girl?
It can be black, white or grey.
- Yet - despite what has just been said
He has a good job, and yet he never seems to have any money
I thought I knew you, yet how wrong I was.
- So - used to show the reason for something
It is still painful so I am going to see a doctor
What is a Subordinating Conjunction?
Subordinate conjunctions connect two unequal parts (a dependent clause and an independent clause).
Subordinating conjunctions introduce dependent clauses
|Time||Cause/ Effect Reason||Contrast/ Concession||Place||Condition|
|After||As||Although||Where||As [far/long/soon] as|
|As soon as||Due to the fact that||Even if
|Before||Since||Despite the fact that||-||Even if|
|Now that||So that||In spite of the fact that||-||If
|Once||In order that||Though||-||On condition that|
|Until||-||Whereas||-||Whether or not|